Thanks to their branching structures and rock-like appearances, it’s no surprise they are often mistaken as marine plants or boulders. Corals are in fact living organisms - they are animals instead of plants! Corals, unlike plants, do not produce their own food through photosynthesis. They obtain food and other nutrients from external sources.
One of the highlights of the enhanced zone at S.E.A. Aquarium includes a never-before-seen habitat showcasing coral fragments. It offers a sneak peek into how our aquarists carry out propagation programme.
Did you know S.E.A. Aquarium has one of the largest live coral displays in the world? We have over 100 species of hard coral and at least 20 species of soft corals that can be found across 13 habitats. Our largest collection of hard corals are grown in a 28,000-litre habitat! Hard corals are reef-building corals and have hard skeletons made up of calcium carbonate, while soft corals do not.
The facilities in S.E.A. Aquarium provide a safe haven for rescued corals. In 2017, 80 pieces of illegally-imported corals from the Philippines were seized by the authorities and placed under our care. Most of them were in poor condition, having rotting structures or insufficient energy to feed properly. Our dedicated curatorial and animal health teams closely monitored and nursed these corals to good health.
Through the showcase of vibrant and beautiful coral displays, we hope to generate greater interest and awareness on their fascinating way of life, the teeming life that corals support, as well as their importance to our ecosystem. The controlled environment in aquariums facilitates more robust research that might be challenging to conduct in wild populations.
Not all coral species co-exist well. When placing different species together in a habitat, aquarists need to ensure they do not block or sting others.
Maintenance also requires careful clearance of sedimentation. Suspended particles can turn the water murky and reduce the amount of light available for the zooxanthellae living inside corals to photosynthesise. Heavy sedimentation can also smother corals. In the ocean, the waves clear out sedimentation and wastes from corals. In our habitats, a wave pump is installed to simulate wave actions for sedimentation clearance.
Most of the corals in S.E.A. Aquarium are photosynthetic, so light is a very important energy source. This is why bulbs have to be changed occasionally even when they are working fine to ensure the light intensity is always kept at a constant and optimal threshold.
To supplement the corals’ diet, planktonic food is also provided. Aquarists often conduct broadcast feeding in the coral habitats where the planktonic food are distributed using a turkey baster.
Lastly, most coral species are sensitive to water temperature and even pH changes. Routine water quality checks have to be carried out to ensure the water parameters are constantly met.
In S.E.A. Aquarium, corals are cultured by a process called “fragging”. A coral fragment is broken off from a colony and taken to the fragging tank for it to grow. It grows based on the principle of budding whereby the newly-formed colony is a clone of the parent colony. These coral fragments are grown in two open top tanks found at back-of-house areas, and are set up with equipment that provides the optimum light, water flow, and parameters.
Once the corals reach a significant size, the aquarists will carefully place them back in the habitats. In-house culturing of corals allows S.E.A. Aquarium to be self-sustainable in the acquisition of corals as it reduces the need to harvest these animals from the ocean. It also gives aquarists first-hand experience on understanding the needs of corals and learn about the different environmental requirements of each species.
Coral reefs are spectacular ecosystems that support 25% of the world’s marine life by providing food, shelter, breeding and nursery grounds. Furthermore, many fishes that reside in coral reefs are a crucial source of seafood for human beings, providing sustenance and livelihood. Additionally, they act as barriers that protect shorelines from erosions, storms, and tsunamis. Given their heightened sensitivity to environmental conditions, diverse coral communities are especially threatened by rapid changes that include elevated sea temperatures, increased acidity, destructive fishing, and pollution. Over the last 30 years, more than half of the world’s coral reefs have perished, and up to 90% may die over the next 20 years.
Our dedicated aquarists continue to work hard behind the scenes, ensuring the best care for our corals and propagating them sustainably, in the hope that we can contribute to the recovery of wild populations in the near future.
You can be a part of S.E.A. Aquarium’s coral conservation efforts by doing the following: